Azure-hooded Jay

Azure-hooded Jay Originally uploaded by hanszw
The Azure-hooded Jay, Cyanolyca cucullata, is a species of bird in the Corvidae family. It is found in Middle America. Its natural habitat is subtropical or tropical moist montane forest. This species is known to have four subspecies. It is 11 to 12 inches (28 to 30 cm) in length and is dark blue with a black head and upper chest. The back of the head and neck are sky blue with a white border. The jays travel in groups of two to ten individuals and may join mixed-species flocks. It are a secretive species and therefore difficult to observe in the wild. As an omnivore, this jay eats berries, seeds, and small, dead animals. Females lay three to four eggs, and the young fledge after twenty days. This species is listed as Least Concern, meaning it is not threatened with extinction. Taxonomy The species was first described by the American ornithologist Robert Ridgway in 1885. Its specific epithet, cucullata, is the Latin word for "hooded". Its closest relative is the Beautiful Jay (C. pulchra) of Colombia and Ecuador; in his 1934 study, Hellmayr treated these species as conspecific. Phylogenetic analysis published in 2009 confirmed the close relationship between the two species; Bonaccorso speculates that the geographic (and subsequent genetic) separation between these species and others in the Cyanolyca genus may have been initiated by the formation of the Río Cauca Valley in western Colombia. The Azure-hooded Jay has four subspecies. Cyanolyca cucullata mitrata is found in eastern Mexico, from San Luis Potosí to north central Oaxaca. This subspecies was initially treated as a separate species by Ridgway, but it was later merged into the Azure-hooded Jay. C. c. guatemalae ranges from southern Mexico in Chiapas to central Guatemala. C. c. hondurensis resides in western Honduras. C. c. cucullata, the nominate subspecies, is found in Costa Rica and western Panama. Description The Azure-hooded Jay ranges in length from 11 to 12 inches (28 to 30 cm), and it tends to weigh 35.2 ounces (1,000 g). Its large size and frame help the bird manage the large amount of flying it does. The adult is dark blue with black on the head and upper chest, while the rear of the crown and nape, or back of the neck, are sky blue with a white border. The legs and bill are black and the eyes are dark red. Both sexes are similar in appearance. Juveniles are duller than adults and their sky blue hood does not possess the white bordering. Its voice has been described as a loud and bright eihnk-eihnk that is typically repeated four to five times. It is also known to repeat a nasal ehr-ehn or eh’enk noise twice and give off a low, gruff, hard cheh-r. The alarm and flock-social calls of this species, characterized as a reek! sound, are "nasal, querulous, and upwardly or double inflected." Distribution and habitat This species is known from Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, southeastern Mexico, and western Panama. It lives in humid evergreen forests that are sometimes interspersed with pine trees. It can be found at the edges of these forests typically in the middle and higher levels within these trees. It is also normally found only where cloud forest is uninterrupted. Ecology and behavior This corvid is known to join mixed-species flocks with other species including Unicolored Jays and Emerald Toucanets. It is also known to travel in groups with two to ten other Azure-hooded Jays. It is a skulking and secretive species, rarely coming out into the open. Because of this habit, the bird is extremely difficult to observe in the wild and not much is known about its ecology. Mates are known to preen each other, a process which entails one bird bending over in front of the other and tugging on its throat feathers. The feathers of the crown are often moving swiftly, and it is believed that the condition of a mate can be determined by this movement. Like other jays, this species is likely extremely intelligent. Similar species are known to use ants to keep their feathers clean, store seeds and nuts for later consumption, and use their toes to hold food. However, due to its secretive nature, these characteristics have not yet been observed in the species. The bird's bright plumage makes it easy for predators to find this species. Whenever the jay feels threatened, it gives off a warning alarm call. Diet The Azure-hooded Jay is omnivorous, eating berries, seeds, and small, dead animals. This species has been known to steal and eat bait from traps set for small mammals. The bird tends to forage in the forest canopy. Reproduction The jay’s nest is typically built 16.4 to 23 feet (5 to 7 m) above the ground next to a tree trunk. The base of the Azure-hooded Jay's first studied nest was coarsely made out of twigs that were 0.08 to 0.12 inches (2 to 3 mm) long. That nest was about 4.3 inches (11 cm) wide inside and 7.4 to 13 inches (19 to 33 cm) wide overall depending on the length of the exterior twigs. The nest is 2 inches (5 cm) deep and has an interior constructed with woven thin fibrils and twigs, and no feathers or other softening devices are used in the nest’s construction. In addition to building its own nest, this jay is known to reuse old, abandoned nests made by other species. Three to four eggs are normally laid. The young are typically raised in the nest between April and June and they take at least 20 days to fledge. Both parents care for the young and feed them a variety of insects, including katydids. After the young fledge, they stay close to their parents. Conservation This jay is treated as a species of Least Concern, or not threatened with extinction, by BirdLife International due to its large geographical range of about 42,500 square miles (110,000 km2), population which, while unsurveyed, is believed to be above 10,000 individuals, and lack of a 30% population decline over the last ten years. However, the Azure-hooded Jay is uncommon in some parts of its range. It is also believed that deforestation may have an effect on this bird. Relationship with humans Although this species has not been observed doing this, closely related jays are known to destroy and eat human-planted crops such as orchards, cane, pineapples, and potatoes. The Azure-hooded Jay has appeared on one stamp in Mexico in 1996.

Tamaulipas Crow

Tamaulipas Crow (Photo by the Rio Grande Delta Audubon)
Tamaulipas Crow (Photo by the Rio Grande Delta Audubon)
Since it is Cinco de Mayo today...I decided I would share with you the Tamaulipas Crow (Corvus imparatus) from a small part of Mexico in the Northeast. It is on the Audubon WatchList and here is some great information on it from the Audubon Watchlist:1 Tamaulipas Crow (Corvus imparatus) This species was on the 2002 WatchList, but is not on the 2007 WatchList. Please refer here for information on the 2007 WatchList. This is a small crow whose range is limited to the Tamaulipas region of northeastern Mexico, extending just into the lower Rio Grande Valley of extreme southeastern Texas. It is the counterpart of the Sinaloa Crow of the Pacific slope; in fact, the two are considered conspecific by some. Identification The Tamaulipas Crow is a small crow, very shiny in appearance, black overall but with a purplish tint above and purplish to bluish-green gloss underneath. The bill is small and short. Its call is much like that of the Fish Crow, but Fish Crows are not found in this region. Distribution and Population Trends This species’ range extends primarily through the Tamaulipas region of Mexico, reaching into extreme southern Texas, into the lower Rio Grande Valley. It is common within its range, but its range is very limited. The species was first reported in Texas in 1968, and although they are often found along the lower Rio Grande, they are likely only feeding there, breeding only in Mexico. Ecology It is found in open and semi-open woodlands and lowland scrubby farmland, sometimes in semi-desert habitats. It may be found in villages and ranches. In southeastern Texas, it is found primarily around the garbage dump at Brownsville. Believed to nest in loose colonies. The nest is a platform or shallow basket made from sticks and plant materials, with soft material lining the inside. It is usually in a tree. Typically, four eggs are laid in early April. The Tamaulipas Crow scavenges for refuse and eats carrion, insects, and seeds, and, like other crows, it likely also eats other birds’ eggs, berries, and nuts. Threats Although the population is stable, conversion of scrubland to farmland poses a threat to this species, especially considering its very limited range. Conservation In the U.S. portion of this species' range there has been extensive work to begun restoring and protecting the remnant forests of the lower Rio Grande Valley of south Texas. The Lower Rio Grande Valley National Wildlife Refuge has been working since 1979 to protect habitat and restore native vegetation. The refuge encompassed more than 90,000 acres in more than 100 separate parcels as of 2002 and is expected to eventually include over 130,000 acres. Texas Parks and Wildlife is developing its World Birding Center in south Texas for launch in 2003 with the goal of engaging both local communities and visitors in state-of-the-art education, restoration and conservation projects, while offering new habitat areas to birdwatchers. What Can You Do? Information on where Tamaulipas Crows occur and in what numbers is vital to conserving the species. Help in monitoring this and other species by reporting your sightings to eBird. A project of Audubon and the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, eBird is the world’s first comprehensive online bird monitoring program: click here. Volunteers are crucial to the success of programs that monitor the status of populations of Tamaulipas Crows and other bird species. Audubon’s Christmas Bird Count (CBC) is one of the longest-running citizen-science monitoring programs in the world and has helped to follow changes in the numbers and distribution of Tamaulipas Crows. To learn more about the CBC and how you can participate, visit here. CIPAMEX, Audubon’s BirdLife International partner in Mexico, has an Important Bird Areas program that is working to protect habitat for Tamaulipas Crow and many other species. To learn more about Mexico’s Important Bird Areas program and how you can help visit them here. References Kaufman, Kenn. 1996. Lives of North American Birds. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, MA. Madge, Steve and Hilary Burn. 1994. Crows and Jays. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.
  1. http://audubon2.org/watchlist/viewSpecies.jsp?id=202 []